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The Business of Lip Balm – Patent Insights

The Business of Lip  Balm – Patent Insights

For many countries January marks the coldest month of the calendar year. These cold temperatures can be tough on people’s skin; with our skin moisture dropping and leading to cases of dryness and inflammation.

There are a variety of products available to safeguard against the negative effects of cold weather on the skin, with many people seeking to protect their lips from dryness and cracking using lip balms.

Using patent data as our guide, we investigate the current developmental trends in the field of lip balms, and if this can give an insight into its future.

Read on, or download the full article here.

A Brief History of Lip Balm

Humans have been using lip moisturising techniques as far back as 40BC, with Egyptians being noted as using a mixture of beeswax, olive oil and animal fat to provide care to dry or chapped lips.

Homemade remedies have prevailed ever since, with households in the 1800’s even being advised to utilise their earwax to obtain healthy, moisturised lips. Luckily technology has moved forward, and today lip balms are primarily based off of a variety of naturally obtained waxes.

The invention of lip balms as we know them today, in the form of a solid stick, can be accredited to Dr Charles Brown Fleet in the early 1800’s. His product, which was wrapped in tin foil rather than a tube, would go on to be named ChapStick and become one of the most synonymous brands within the industry. This business venture was not an instant success however, and Dr Fleet sold the rights to John Morton in 1912 for $5 due to poor initial sales.

Assessing the Field

For a broad patent analysis, we can utilise the classification “A61Q19/001 Preparations for the care of the lips”.

Fig.1, Earliest Priority Year vs Number of Patent Families for A61Q19/001.

As shown in Fig.1, this appear to be a relatively small technology area, with the classification containing approximately 1500 patent families.

This graph highlights a sharp increase in priority filings within this classification, with numbers rising from roughly 20 in 2014 to almost 200 in 2018, indicating that lip care could be a key growth area for its size. The trajectory of this growth may have been affected by Covid-19 and may take a few years before we see a more stable indication of its development.

Global Reach

Fig.2, Patents by Publication Country.

Fig.2 highlights the most frequent publication countries for this technology.

As shown, China holds a significant stake in this field, with a larger range of patents than any other country, while the US holds the second highest number of patents. These two countries are notably the global leaders in industrial output.

The Business of Lip Balm

The key assignees holding patents within this technology are displayed within Fig.3 below.

Fig.3, Assignees vs Number of Patent Families.

The main player within this field by some margin is L’Oréal; the world’s largest cosmetics company.

Rounding out the top 3 is skin care company Beiersdorf, owner of Nivea, and chemical company BASF. These companies are based in France and Germany; countries which are respectively the world’s first and seventh largest exporters of beauty, cosmetics, and skincare products.

A significant number of patents within this technology were published in China, as noted in Fig.2, and this is reflected with 6 of the top 20 key players being China based companies.

Other notable companies acting in this field include Procter & Gamble and The Estee Lauder Companies Management.

Fig.4, Publication Year vs Assignee

Through Fig.4’s bubble chart we can observe the longevity to which these companies have had an interest in the field of lip protection, and who has been most active in the previous 20 years.

L’Oréal, noted in Fig.3 as the main player, have been a constant presence in this area over this period, with significantly more publications per year to the closest rival. Meanwhile BASF, the second largest player, can be seen to have reduced their attention in recent years, as have cosmetics giants Estee Lauder.

There are a number of companies entering the field within this time frame; notably Mary Kay, Avon and GlaxoSmithKline, all with a consistent but small number of annual publications.

We can also analyse the key concepts utilised within the patents from these core assignees, identifying where these companies stand within the developmental field, as per Fig.5 below.

Fig.5, Assignees vs Patent Concepts.

L’Oréal, the largest cosmetics company, and most active player in this field, have strong holdings in all concept areas asides from Vitamin E usage. This seems to be an area not explored by most key assignees, with Dalian Zhongzhuoxin Technology Service having the highest interest of the eight key companies currently exploring this technology route.

Jojoba oil and Vitamin E could be considered areas of key development going forward, with only half of the key players currently exploring these concepts.

All key assignees appear to utilise beeswax as a wax portion of their lip balms. Other waxes are captured within this data, with carnauba wax the next most frequent and candelilla wax being the least used of the options highlighted within the chart.

Key Development Areas

Finally, we can try identifying the key development areas for this field by analysing the IPC classifications and key concepts associated with the data set of patents.

Fig.6, IPC vs Earliest Priority Year

For most classifications there is minimal variation over the 20-year analysis period, with a common increase occurring in line with the rise in publications from 2016. This may be due to the size of the technology area; and if the field continues to grow, we could expect to see more variation from a wider patent base.

There are a variety of newly utilised classifications over this period. The recent introduction of “A61K8/9789 Magnoliopisda” and “A61K8/9794 Liliopsida”, may reflect a shift in the technology area towards the use of flowering plants, while “A61K8/63 Steroids; Derivatives thereof” may also be of future interest.

As identified from Fig.5, Vitamin E could be considered a potential growth area, something that is reflected by the emerging use of “A61K8/67 Vitamins”, one of three classifications that finds new, consistent use from 2015, in line with the increase in priority filings.

Patents of Interest

Away from the information provided by these charts, we can manually filter the data set in order to identify other potential trends and patents of possible interest.

One key function not highlighted within the charts is UV filter lip balms, which act to protect the skin from solar activity. This technology has been on the market for a while, with over 10% of the data set claiming UV protection or SPF. An example being WO2017074895A1; a lip protectant that comprises “at least one UVA sunscreen and/or at least one UVB sunscreen.”

Mirroring the popularity of milks in general cosmetics, lip balms have seen a similar uptake in incorporating a variety of types of milk into their compositions. There are a range of benefits to utilising milk in skin care; from the exfoliating properties of lactic acid to the array of vitamins they contain, with vitamins being a previously identified key growth area. Maintaining a small but frequent inclusion in the data set from 2003 onwards, compositions claiming the inclusion of a milk now account for roughly 5% of these results. One such example being CN108969462A, which relates to a lip balm containing 30 parts by weight of goat milk.

A recent development in the field is the emergence of cannabis infused lip balms, their rise in popularity coinciding with the US’s relaxation of its marijuana laws. This is truly an emerging technology; the inclusion of cannabis or cannabinoids present in the claims of only 1.5% of this data set, with the earliest priority date being 2013.

US10639260B1 is one such an example, relating to a lip balm composition containing “petroleum jelly, camphor, menthol, phenol, beeswax, and cannabis”, where the cannabis may have a THC concentration between 15 and 30%.

Conclusion

Although a relatively small technology area, it is apparent that this could be considered a growing field, specifically if it continues its pre-Covid trajectory.
There are a number of “major corporations” acting as key players, however asides from L’Oréal there is no other company with a large hold on this market. There is also significant interest from China, and this is replicated in the amount of China based companies highlighted in the key assignee charts.

In terms of the future, it is apparent there has not been significant variation in the field up to this point, however that seems to be changing with the emergence of utilising flowering plants, steroids and vitamin E. As the technology area continues to grow, we could expect to see more variation, with cannabis infused lip balms an example of a recent change in the market that could have greater influence as time progresses.

Article by Daniel Di Francesco, IP Manager at Patent Seekers. He is an expert in undertaking FTO, Patentability and Invalidity searches, covering all types of subject matter with specialism in the chemical field.

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CIPA Life Sciences Conference starts in Manchester today

CIPA (Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys) Life Sciences Conference starts in Manchester today.  Patent Seekers are pleased to sponsor this sell out conference aimed at Life Science Patent Attorneys and providing an opportunity for them to discuss new developments relating to patents.

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Patent Insights – Pumpkins, what use are they outside of the Halloween holiday?

 

Pumpkins are a key tradition for many around Halloween; their glowing faces seen in windows and doorways all over the world. However, once we’ve hollowed out our spooky canvases most people are left wondering if there is a way to utilize the rest of their pumpkin.
Using patent data as our guide, we investigate how pumpkins are being used outside of this holiday tradition and what the future could hold for this seasonal fruit.

 

History of the Jack-o-lantern
Pumpkins have long been seen as a symbol of Halloween, due in large part to their popularity for being carved into decorative lanterns. This practice originates back to an Irish myth about “Stingy Jack”; a man doomed to roam the earth with only a hollowed-out turnip containing a flame to light his path. The use of vegetables such as turnips were standard practice for a long time, until Europeans emigrating to “the New World” found the native pumpkin to be readily available and have a much larger and easier to carve surface than turnips, thus launching their iconic status as a Halloween staple.

Patenting the pumpkin
Pumpkin related patents can, for the broad majority, be broken down into three headings:

  • Using the pumpkin
  • Growing the pumpkin
  • Processing the pumpkin

By extracting the data subset surrounding using a pumpkin, we can gather insights into what this technology area holds and highlight where it could be heading.

Global Reach
As seen in Fig.1, below, China holds a significant majority when it comes to publishing patents related to the use of pumpkins.

Fig.1, Patents by Publication Country, created using PatWorld

This may be related to the high percentage of pumpkins produced in China, accounting for 27% of the total worldwide pumpkin production in 2020.
They are however, a versatile fruit that can be grown almost anywhere; a fact that may be reflected by the wide spread of publication countries.

The Pumpkin King
With China holding a commanding majority of publications, it is little surprise to see Chinese based companies holding a key stake in these patents.
However, even though the dataset contained over 2000 publication families, the leading assignee is only responsible for 30 patent families, indicating a varied market of which no one entity has commanding control.

Fig.2, Assignees vs Number of Patent Families

A sign of the pumpkin’s versatility, these key players come from a range of backgrounds; predominantly, Food production, Research Institutions and Farming.

Making Use
From the below heatmaps we can start to gather an idea of the main uses of pumpkins. These charts allow for visualizing trend cycles and identifying potential gaps in the market.

The number of publications in all fields appear to reach a peak from 2014 to 2019. Without the impact of Covid it is impossible to know if this rise in publications would have continued at the same rate had it remained unaffected.

Fig.3, Heat map of IPC Classification vs Earliest Publication Year

Unsurprisingly, the main classifications utilized fall under either A23L019/00 – Products from Fruits or Vegetables, and A23L033/00 – Modifying Nutritive Qualities of Foods.
Significantly, A23L033/00 has been used continually throughout the timeframe identified, indicating that pumpkins have long been utilized for their health properties.  The identified health benefits may correlate with its popularity within the Chinese market, where natural ingredients are often widely utilized in medicines.
Asides from the above classifications there is also a range of other uses identified; A23G003 – Confectionary, A21D013 – Bakery and A61K0036 – Medical Preparations, being the key examples.

As well as looking at the assigned classifications, we can compare the publication history of the key concepts these patents relate to.

Fig.4, Heat Map of Concepts vs 1st Publication Year

Using this heatmap we can identify key trends that are appearing within the patent literature.
With the exception of pumpkin pulp and pumpkin juice, which appear to have relatively consistent publication activity, the remaining concepts have all experienced small cycles of increased usage, typically peaking around 2014 to 2019.

Here we can highlight both the use of Cobalt and Vitamin B12 synthesis as key growth areas from the last decade.
Antioxidant Carotene has also been a key growth area; however, this appears to have ceased to be of interest in the field, being present solely in 2011 and 2014-17.

Key Patents:
Outside of the areas highlighted above there were some key patents that could hint towards where the future of pumpkin usage may lie:

CN105994477A relates to “Pumpkin-cake raw materials used for 3D printing” leading to the creation of aesthetically pleasing pumpkin cakes that can be shaped by 3d printing.

KR20080053260A is concerned with the production of Biofuel from pumpkins, utilising their flesh and epicarp to produce bioethanol that is necessary for the esterification of bio-diesel oil.

As highlighted through this brief patent insights, pumpkins are an incredibly versatile fruit that hold the potential for being much more than a seasonal decoration. And who knows, if their usage becomes more urgently required in key commercial areas such as biofuel, we just might find ourselves once again changing what we carve at Halloween.

Article by Daniel Di Francesco, an IP Manager at Patent Seekers. He is an expert in undertaking FTO, Patentability and Invalidity searches, covering all types of subject matter with specialism in the chemical field.

If you enjoy our content here, you’ll love the stuff we share on LinkedIn, follow us now. 

Patent Seekers are experts in providing Patentability, Freedom To Operate (FTO), Patent Busting, State of the Art, Patent Landscape and Mapping searches. Need help in deciding which search you need? Check out our article on selecting the correct patent search!

We’re exhibiting at the CIPA Edinburgh Regional Meeting today

The CIPA Edinburgh Regional Meeting is today and we’re pleased to be exhibiting and showing our support to the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys (CIPA).

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Climate Change from a Patent Perspective – part 3

The final instalment of Climate Change from a Patent Perspective is out now in the Global IP Matrix.

Climate Change from a Patent Perspective  is the final instalment of our 3-part series. Here we will round out the discussion by looking into small changes we can all make to reduce our environmental footprint and what the future of climate management may look like in the coming years.

Article by Daniel Di Francesco, an IP Manager at Patent Seekers and Clare Gibson Senior Analyst at Patent Seekers. Daniel and Clare are experts in undertaking FTO, Patentability and Invalidity searches, covering all types of subject matter with specialisms in the chemical field (Daniel) and Physics and Mechanics (Clare).

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New Green Technology Inventions Discount

Green Technology Discount from Patent Seekers

New Green Technology Inventions Discount from Patent Seekers

In order to show Patent Seekers’ commitment to combating climate change we are launching a new ‘Green’ initiative today. The initiative will aim to help inventors and companies in this field carry out research to be able to apply for patents and launch their products into the marketplace..

This will take the form of a Green Technology 10% Discount.  Any inventor or company can request this discount. It applies to any of our services from “Prior to Filing” searches to “Freedom To Operate” and yearly access to our patent search database “PatWorld” to carry out their own research.

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Movie Magic – Patented Hollywood

The magic of movies is the escapism they can provide, transporting the viewer to different worlds that may seem impossible to comprehend existing outside of the silver screen.
As technology advances, concepts that were once viewed as science fiction are slowly becoming commonplace. The lines between fantasy and reality have become blurred, and although some ideas may never be possible to implement, we can look to intellectual property in hopes to find how close we can get to living out some of our cinematic fantasies.

Intellectual Property in Hollywood


Intellectual Property and the movie industry have a long history, driving innovation with its need for special effects and practical stunts. This relationship goes all the way back to the dawn of the major movie studios, contributing to them finding their home within Hollywood.

During the 1890’s the majority of US patents relating to film making were owned by Thomas Edison. He negotiated a licensing agreement with major filmmakers of the time, creating the Motion Picture Patents Company, and thus establishing a monopoly on all areas of the filmmaking process. These regulations lead to a large section of independent filmmakers choosing to move their operations to Hollywood; a destination chosen due to its distance from Edison’s New Jersey base, where it would be difficult for the MPPC to enforce its patents by prosecuting for infringement.

Fig.1, G03B31/02 Projectors in which sound track is on moving film

In A Galaxy Not That Far Away
Star Wars is one of the most iconic franchises in cinematic history, with its characters and lore becoming common knowledge integrated in our daily lives. Arguably the most universally identifiable piece of the Star Wars universe is the lightsabre. There are various light up swords that mimic the aesthetic of a light sabre, but a recent patent application by Disney, who own the rights to Star Wars itself, may be the closest we can get to replicating a true lightsabre experience. The patent (US2018326317A1) discloses a retractable sword with an illuminated blade for “providing an energy sword effect”. This effect operates by utilising a flexible light source strip attached to a blade end cap. The blade may be provided on a spool and extended or retracted by a motor in the hilt, creating a realistic effect of a lightsabre powering on/off.

But Your Kids Are Gonna Love It
Back to The Future represents another universally recognisable movie franchise, which contains predictions of numerous technological advances that were claimed to be achieved by 2015. The concept of time travel itself may be some way off still, however those looking to recreate Marty’s hoverboard chase from Back to The Future 2 could be in luck. There are various methods that could be employed to generate the lift to propel the board, such as high-pressured water (US2015360755A1) or providing a source of direct air pressure (US2005016783A1). However, the patent that most closely appears to replicate the look and intended use of that of the film appears to be US2015303768A1, by Akers Pakesilaibai Company. This application proposes an electromagnetic levitation vehicle which utilises magnetic fields to induce eddy currents for generating the desired lift and thrust.

Muggles Get In On The Act
The final of our three innovations is also the final of the three Deathly Hallows; the invisibility cloak. The concept of an invisibility cloak has been utilised in plenty of film and literary works over the years, and although the Wizarding World has their own patent office, termed the “Ludicrous Patents Officed” in the Ministry of Magic, we can find this technology available a little closer to home. Canadian manufacturer Hyperstealth Corp have developed a light bending material known as “Quantum Stealth”, which can be utilised as a camouflaging agent. The material (US2021172709A1) comprises a lens sheet assembly which could bend light waves around an object by refraction or reflection, thus disguising it from an observer.

As illustrated by the above identified patent applications, what was once deemed pure fantasy is slowly becoming reality. And this is just a glimpse into what is possible with current technology, as we continue to push further into new fields it is possible one day movies such as Back to The Future 2 will need to be reclassified from science fiction to historical drama.

They say that life imitates art, and that certainly seems to be true of innovation.

Article by Daniel Di Francesco, an IP Manager at Patent Seekers. He is an expert in undertaking FTO, Patentability and Invalidity searches, covering all types of subject matter with specialism in the chemical field.

If you enjoy our content here, you’ll love the stuff we share on LinkedIn, follow us now. 

Patent Seekers are experts in providing Patentability, Freedom To Operate (FTO), Patent Busting, State of the Art, Patent Landscape and Mapping searches. Need help in deciding which search you need? Check out our article on selecting the correct patent search!

 

6th European Intellectual Property Forum – Are you attending in September?

Are you attending the 6th European Intellectual Property Forum in Munich? We’re attending the EIPF next month and looking forward to meeting you in person. Timothy Parry – Business and Finance Director, and Morgan Parry – Business Development Representative will be there.

If you’re attending in person pop by our Exhibition Space, alternatively if you’d like to book a meeting slot with Tim and Morgan click here.

As a founding partner of Patent Seekers Tim has expertise in providing and developing Intellectual Property search and analysis services to meet clients needs. This includes the development of innovative products that leverage patent data to provide strategic business insights.

Ask Tim and Morgan about our latest innovations including StartPoint and how they can work for you.  In addition, for your in-house search needs ask about a free trial to PatWorld, your global patent database solution.

We look forward to seeing you at the 6th European Intellectual Property Forum in Munich and hope that you have a successful and productive conference.

StartPoint© Analytics Report – The StartPoint© Analytics Report provides the latest product in market research and competitive intelligence. Providing patent and non-patent research for Inventors and Entrepreneurs it utilises the unique power of patent data. StartPoint© is the affordable tool to help you through your invention journey.

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Youth in IP: Protecting the Future

Youth in IP: Protecting the Future

In celebration of World IP Day 2022, IP and Youth and Innovating for a Better Future, Chelsey Edwards Patent Analyst at Patent Seekers shares her thoughts on the topic, entitled Youth in IP: Protecting the Future.

This year, social media usage has reached an all-time high with a double-digit increase in social media users predicted to spend 12.5 trillion hours online, according to the Digital 2022 Global Overview Report – published in partnership between We Are Social and Hootsuite. With more than two-thirds (67.1%) of the world’s population now using mobile phones and 92.1% of which using them to access the internet, time spent using connected tech continues to rise.

A recent survey of 1,500 British 16 to 25-year-olds commissioned by Samsung UK’s Solve for Tomorrow programme revealed that 89% of Gen Z say they would like to run their own business, with 70% looking to launch within the next 12 months. However, 39% revealed that they don’t know where to start and 22% believe they don’t have access to the support they need. Living in a world dominated by an online presence, it seems easier than ever to feel disconnected from others and the world around us. Despite this, 67% of young people aim to solve pressing global issues relating to education, sustainability, social isolation or diversity and inclusion, with their entrepreneurial endeavours. Embracing the ever-expanding presence of youth online may present a unique opportunity to merge the worlds of social media and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) learning. With a shortfall of over 173,000 workers in the STEM sector, it’s no secret that the UK is in the thick of a skills shortage.

A robust STEM education is fundamental to the economy as it allows students to work collaboratively; developing critical thinking, project management and problem-solving skills. Combining these skills with an understanding of the fundamentals of Intellectual Property (IP) could inspire the next generation of innovators. However, it is not enough to only teach students how to design, code and invent. They must be taught how to protect what they create or potentially face theft, misappropriation, and infringement. A way in which we can supplement a student’s IP knowledge is through incentivised innovation programmes. Programmes such as Solve for Tomorrow, Innovate UK’s Young Innovators Awards, British Inventor Show Awards and James Dyson Awards, aim to invest in young innovators along with providing them with valuable connections and mentorship in their respective industries. Winners can also bag themselves vital funding to help advance innovation and launch products to market.

One such individual is Penelope Roberts. The University of Essex PhD student received funding from Innovate UK Smart Grants for her company RoboNurse4NHS for their development of robotic companions for care homes and hospitals. Penelope hopes her innovation can help reduce the strain on current hospital and home care services by providing socially aware, semi-autonomous robotic companions as customisable and personalised assistants. As can be seen in figure 1, the development of technology utilising artificial life increased to an all-time high during 2019.

Fig. 1: A bar chart demonstrating the rapid increase in the number of patent applications under the classification encompassing Artificial life, i.e., computers simulating life since 2015 (created using data generated by PatWorld).  Patent application data for application years 2021 and 2022 may not truly reflect actual activity due to delays during the 18-month patent publication cycle.

Another example of the success of such programmes is Seyed Nasrollah, graduate of Imperial College, the University of Cambridge and regional winner of the Young Innovators Programme in partnership with The Prince’s Trust. Seyed believes his company, Unifiq Games, can use machine learning to revolutionise the games industry and help address the STEM-skills crisis facing the UK, through developing a social video game rooted in “a digital playground based on the laws of physics down to the atom”. The advancement of modern technology by way of machine learning continues to drive innovative tech solutions, as is evident by the increase in patent applications within this sector in recent years (see figure 2 below).

Fig. 2: A bar chart demonstrating the rapid increase in the number of patent applications under the classification encompassing Machine learning since 2015 (created using data generated by PatWorld). Patent application data for application years 2021 and 2022 may not truly reflect actual activity due to delays during the 18-month patent publication cycle.

Growth in the number of patent families published under STEM related classifications such as Artificial life, i.e. computers simulating life and Machine learning, as demonstrated in figures 1 and 2 would seem contradictory to the reported shortfall of over 173,000 workers in the STEM sector. However, it may allude to the lack of support and access to research, development and IP knowledge experienced by today’s youth. Invention requires creativity, the ability to imagine the possibilities and wonders of the world, and of course excellent subject knowledge; particularly in the realm of STEM. While innovation and transforming novelty into a commercial product is essential in rapidly changing markets, without invention innovation is impossible. Lack of inventive step or novelty will render an idea unpatentable, highlighting the significance of invention. Despite numerous grants and awards available for young innovators, there appears to be a clear lack of incentivised programmes encouraging the creation of novel inventions and knowledge on how to appropriately protect them through the patenting process.

The European Patent Office (EPO) have now established the Young Inventors prize in a bid to acknowledge young, problem-solving inventors across all technical fields with a focus on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals defined in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This agenda recognizes that “ending poverty and other deprivations must go hand-in-hand with strategies that improve health and education, reduce inequality, and spur economic growth – all while tackling climate change and working to preserve our oceans and forests”. Programmes such as this could help provide Gen Z with STEM-skills and IP knowledge required to unlock their entrepreneurial potential. With its first ever winners’ ceremony being held on the 21st of June 2022, there will surely be corporations, charities and governing bodies looking to follow suit.

Chelsey Edwards is a patent analyst at Patent Seekers and is experienced in a broad range of biological research methods with an in depth knowledge of recent advancements within oncology. She has an MSc Cancer Biology and Therapeutics and BSc Hons Bioveterinary Science. 

Resources used: 

https://wearesocial.com/sg/blog/2022/01/digital-2022-another-year-of-bumper-growth/

https://www.samsung.com/uk/solvefortomorrow/

https://eandt.theiet.org/content/articles/2021/11/engineering-and-tech-giants-join-forces-to-stem-15bn-annual-skills-gap/

https://studenthut.com/articles/stem-skills-shortage-myth-reality and https://yetiacademy.com/reasons-why-stem-education-is-important-in-2022/

https://www.samsung.com/uk/solvefortomorrow/

https://www.britishinventionshow.com/copy-of-invention

https://www.jamesdysonaward.org/en-GB/news/inventors-of-the-future-submit-your-idea-to-the-james-dyson-award/

https://ktn-uk.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/0465_KTN_YoungInnovators2122_v5.pdf

https://www.unifiq.com/

https://www.epo.org/law-practice/legal-texts/html/caselaw/2019/e/clr_iv_c_3_4_2.htm

https://www.epo.org/news-events/events/european-inventor/young-inventors.html

https://sdgs.un.org/goals